Thursday, May 21, 2020

Pfizer - Financial Analysis - 2569 Words

Name: Khiem Nguyen FINANCIAL ANALYSIS REPORT (Draft 1) For PFIZER INC. Introduction and Shareholder Analysis Pfizer (NYSE: PFE) is involved in the development, manufacturing and marketing of pharmaceutical products. The industry is intensely competitive. There are a few unique characteristics. Pharmaceutical products have long and expensive development periods – upwards of ten years and $100 million depending on the nature of the drug and the scope of the clinical trials process. In order to encourage companies to engage in innovation, companies are given lengthy patent protection for their drugs upon receiving regulatory approval. This allows them to charge monopoly rents so that they may recover the development cost. A†¦show more content†¦Furthermore, Pfizer’s inventory turnover indicates the degree to which the firm’s inventory is converted to cash. Unsold inventory represents business risk and inefficiency. The days’ sales in inventory has increased from 169.8 to 194.4. Average inventory turn has declined from 2.0 to 1.68 and ending invent ory turn has declined from 2.12 to 1.85. This indicates that Pfizer’s inventory supplies are building – they are not selling their inventory as quickly as they have in the past. Put together, Pfizer has seen deterioration in its liquidity over the past year. The company’s current and quick ratios have declined, although they are still healthy. The company has tightened receivables, but this is an attempt to improve cash flow in light of rapidly building inventories. Pfizer’s inventory levels, it should be noted, are only high compared with 2007 numbers; they are far below inventory levels of four or five years ago. Debt Management From 2007 to 2008, Pfizer’s debt ratio has increased from 42% to 48%. Even though this ratio is still well below one, it still further supports the idea that Pfizer has seen a constriction of its cash flow, and it has been forced to borrow to maintain a necessary level of working capital. In addition, the debt-equity ratio has also increased from 0.77 in 2007 to 0.93 in 2008 which suggests that Pfizer has been aggressive in financing its growth with debt in the past year. On the other hand, the long-term-debt to equityShow MoreRelatedFinancial Analysis of Merck and Pfizer3681 Words   |  15 Pagesis bound to be displeased with mutually exclusive expectations and the pharmaceutical industry is often criticized. Pfizer Inc. Mission Products: Pfizer’s mission is to help increase peoples’ life spans and help them live healthier lives. Its products help treat and prevent minor conditions like back pain and more serious ones such as psychotic disorders. Strategy: Pfizer is the world’s number one pharmaceutical company. Its best-selling products include Lipitor, the world’s best- sellingRead MorePfizer Financial Analysis Essay1377 Words   |  6 PagesPfizer Incorporated (PFE)  was established in 1849 in Brooklyn, New York. Charles Pfizer and Charles Erhardt, two German-American cousins, founded a chemicals business and produced an anti-parasitic- Santorin, which was a great success.Pfizers  business  began to grow with production of citric acid in 1880s. Total sales of Pfizer had reached almost $3 million by 1910. By 1950s, Pfizer had set up business in countries like Belgium, Canada, Iran, Panama, Turkey, and United Kingdom.   Pfizer is a  pharmaceuticalRead MorePfizer financial analysis Essay2179 Words   |  9 Pages 217741531115000 Pfizer Inc. Financial Analysis (2011-2013) Table of Content General comments†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.2 Comments on financial ratios†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦.3 Profitability indicator ratios†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦3 Liquidity Measurement ratios†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..4 Efficiency ratios†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦5 Capital structure†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Read MoreFinancial analysis: Pfizer vs. JohnsonJohnson1773 Words   |  8 Pagesï » ¿ Case Analysis Introduction to Finance Introduction – The companies’ profile We chose Johnson and Johnson as a company for our case analysis, and researches have shown that one of its main competitors is Pfizer, Inc. Johnson and Johnson is ranked as the world’s most respected company, and as number 50 in Forbes Top 100 World’s Most Powerful Brands: it is a veritable empire. But as we say, â€Å"Rome wasn’t built in a day†. Johnson and Johnson was founded inRead MorePfizer Case Study1484 Words   |  6 PagesQuestion 1: Describe and evaluate what Pfizer is doing? Pfizer is the world’s largest research-based pharmaceuticals firm and also a well known Pharmaceutical company. So their most of the work depends on research, developing Strategies and innovate. They were trying to find a new way of system which makes their Work more effective and efficient. Pfizer find out that their worker spends more time on Business research and data analysis to the creation of documents and other routine Support likeRead MorePfizer And Allergan Deal : An Effective Strategy Adopted By Pfizer1187 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction Pfizer is one of the world s major pharmaceutical companies, and the main one in the US market. Pfizer produces a wide range of pharmaceutical products for various medical sectors, including: cardiology, neurology and oncology. In addition, Pfizer produces basic consumer healthcare products that help consumers with their everyday healthcare issues. On November 23, 2015, one of the world’s largest health care deals is announced. Pfizer will merge with Allergan to create the world’sRead MoreFinancial Health Of A Company1250 Words   |  5 PagesLiquidity Ratios The financial health of a business greatly depends on its ability to maintain current commitments and obligations. Liquidity or the ability to generate cash from current assets to meet short-term obligations as well as unforeseen responsibility is important for the subsistence of a company. â€Å"A reasonable level of liquidity is essential to the survival of a company, as poor cash control is one of the main reasons for business failure. (Pyke, 2007) Through utilization of toolsRead MorePfizer Case Study1500 Words   |  6 PagesQuestion 1: Describe and evaluate what Pfizer is doing? Pfizer is the world’s largest research-based pharmaceuticals firm and also a well known Pharmaceutical company. So their most of the work depends on research, developing Strategies and innovate. They were trying to find a new way of system which makes their Work more effective and efficient. Pfizer find out that their worker spends more time on Business research and data analysis to the creation of documents and other routine Support likeRead MorePfizer Internal and External Analysis910 Words   |  4 PagesPfizer Proposal Summary: In terms of total sales, Pfizer is the world’s largest pharmaceutical company that creates products that serve approximately 150 million people worldwide and sales of approximately $50 billion in 2009. Formed in 1849 as a chemicals business, it has realigned itself to become the world’s leading research based pharmaceutical company and has produced drugs such as penicillin, Lipitor, Viagra, Detrol, and Geodon and thousands of others throughout its history. Focused now onRead MoreEli Lilly And Company Performance1750 Words   |  7 PagesExecutive Summary Eli Lilly and Company (Lilly) is a global pharmaceutical company, ranked 115 on the Fortune 500. Lilly’s operating performance has been strong in 2011, with ROA and ROE much higher than its competitor, Pfizer. The company has improved sales in the year 2011; however, its net income fell. Lilly’s future performance is challenged by factors such as major patent expirations, which will expose the company to the generic version of their drugs being produced by other manufacturers. Lilly

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Illusions in J.D. Salinger´s Catcher in the Rye Essays

Do not be mislead by what you see around you, or be influenced by what you see. You live a world which is a playground of illusion, full of false paths, false values and false ideals. But you are not part of that world (Sai Baba). A world of illusion is an alluring, yet perilous place to enter. It can deceive the mind only to cause damage and distress. Holden Caulfields life has led to. an atrophy through his struggle of conceiving illusions as reality. In J.D. Salingers novel, The Catcher in the Rye, Holden Caulfield battles the constant reminder of his brother, Allies, death while he roams the streets of New York. Preceding his futile adventures, he is expelled from his fourth school, Pencey Prep. During his extent at†¦show more content†¦By hiding from this adolescent problem, Holden only reprieves the situation. As Holden aspires to be the catcher in the rye, he includes his red hunting hat. This is a people shooting hat...I shoot people in this hat (Salinger 22). Holden becoming the catcher is arguably the biggest illusion in this novel. This quote is taken in a metaphorical sense as to his armor or protection when he saves people in the rye from any maturation. When he puts on this hunting hat, he instantly feels the prerogative to become the catcher. He continues to reach for this duty as the catcher in the rye, but this prevails over his intuition and common sense on indispensable issues. In the climax when Holden watches Pheobe on the carrousel, he puts on his hat as a protection from the non-precedent rain. My hunting hat gave my quite a lot of protection, in a way, but i got soaked anyway. I didnt care though. I felt so damn happy all of a sudden (Salinger 212-213). Throughout this novel, Holden had perceived this hunting hat as a full protection and a barrier in between him and the rest of the world. In this scene, Holden finally understands that this hat cannot protect him forever. It is known that this hat had also be en a representation of Allie because he had very red hair (Salinger 38), and now Holden is apprehending that Allie cannot protect him from everything. While Holden knew he had the hat on and it was offering the protection it could,Show MoreRelatedGreat Gatsby in Comparison to Catcher in the Rye Essay1666 Words   |  7 Pages‘American dream’ which can be compared easily to The Catcher in the Rye By J.D Salinger. Nick and Jay Gatsby are similar to Holden Caulfield. Nick is like Holden in the fact that they both share ideas of having expectations of people and hope, even though society constantly lets them down with multiple examples showing how people act in their natural state. Gatsby and Holden are much alike because they both have these fond ideas of women and their illusion of their American dreams, with Holden its JaneRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book The Catcher Of The Rye 1080 Words   |  5 Pagesonly one present. In the book The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Saling er and the movie Igby Goes Down by Burr Steers hypocrisy, self-Isolation and the deception of adult-hood are themes that re-illiterate the coming of age for young-adults like Holden Caulfield and Igby Slocumb. At times, we as people forget the standards we claim set upon ourselves to embrace yet forgetting to act upon it. This entitlement of hypocrisy carries out commonly amongst The Catcher in The Rye and Igby Goes Down. It is portrayedRead MoreThe The Rye : The Expression Of Individuality1061 Words   |  5 PagesRahul Gudivada EWA2 Literary Analysis 11/9/15 The Catcher in the Rye: The Expression of Individuality In the bildungsroman Catcher in the Rye, J.D. Salinger employs the struggle of individuality, inevitable maturation, and the childhood corruption of adulthood to reveal Holden’s alienation from society. Throughout the novel Holden is rejected and exploited by the society around him. As he is conflicted with himself to find a purpose in life he constantly tries to connect with a superficial societyRead MoreEmotional Damage, Hidden Truths, and Accepting Responsibility in J.D. Salinger’s The Catcher in the Rye 1996 Words   |  8 PagesEmotional Damage, Hidden Truths, and Accepting Responsibility in J.D. Salinger’s The Catcher in the Rye When one finds themselves in a reader’s position, they search for things in the novel that they can relate to. J. D. Salinger wrote a story that contained countless topics that people, past, present and future, can relate to in several ways. The novel follows the story of a troubled boy named Holden who leaves school due to his poor academic performance, an altercation with his roommate, and complicationsRead MoreHolden s Journey Toward Maturity2555 Words   |  11 PagesAdditionally, Holden is constantly looking for answers to where the ducks go when not at the lagoon. For instance, â€Å"Do you happen to know where they go, the ducks when it gets all frozen over?† (Salinger 60). Holden’s concern for where the ducks go proves his anxiety and Holden feels he lacks anywhere safe to head to go in the world. Holden shows a growing ability to adapt to adult life. He also says people cannot rely on others to help them and sometimes people just have to do things with out theRead MoreThe Modernist Movement And Its Influence On Art1688 Words   |  7 PagesMovement.  Post-Modernism was a departure from modernism.  This movement took place during the mid-twentieth century.  One characteristic during the post-modern movement was that there was no absolute truth.  Postmodernists believed that truth is an illusion misused by people to gain power over other people.  The postmodern movement is identified with deconstruction and cultural criticism.  Cultural criticism questions the notions of high and low cultures and tends to treat all works of art as equallyRead MoreA Negative View Of Mental Illness1781 Words   |  8 Pages The Catcher in the Rye, makes a connection to these views of the world. In the novel The Catcher in the Rye, written by J.D. Salinger, the main character Holden Caulfield is clearly disturbed in some way or another. The opening paragraph begins to paint a clear picture of Holden’s unique and descriptive personality, â€Å"I’ll just tell you about this madman stuff that happened to me around last Christmas just before I got pretty run-down and had to come out here and take it easy† (Salinger 1). TheRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald3044 Words   |  13 Pageswriters present the idea that the American Dream is all an illusion and that it is physically impossible to achieve yet many strive to reach it in their lifetime. Many define the American Dream as the notation that the American social, economic and political system is the key to a life of personal happiness and material comfort. The central theme of both ‘The Great Gatsby’, by F. Scott Fitzgerald, and ‘The Catcher in the Rye’, by J.D Salinger, is American lifestyle and mind-set during a time of prosperityRead MoreAccepting Realities : The Catcher Of The Rye2547 Words   |  11 PagesAccepting Realities: the Catcher in the Rye By: Shirelle Cogan â€Å"Reality is merely an illusion, albeit a very present one† –Albert Einstein. This quote by one of the most impactful men in the world emphasizes that although reality is not set in stone and changes constantly, it is an unavoidable part of life. This means that if someone refuses to accept their realities, it is due to issues within them that are unresolved. Holden, the protagonist in The Catcher in the Rye by J.D Salinger, has extreme difficultyRead MoreLiterary Criticism : The Free Encyclopedia 7351 Words   |  30 Pagesnovel is sometimes used interchangeably with Bildungsroman, but its use is usually wider and less technical. The birth of the Bildungsroman is normally dated to the publication of Wilhelm Meister s Apprenticeship by Johann Wolfgang Goethe in 1795–96,[8] or, sometimes, to Christoph Martin Wieland s Geschichte des Agathon of 1767.[9] Although the Bildungsroman arose in Germany, it has had extensive influence first in Europe and later throughout the world. Thomas Carlyle translated Goethe’s novel

Spanish and Italian Borrowings to the English Language Free Essays

Romanic languages, group of languages belonging to the Italic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages. They are spoken by about 670 million people in many parts of the world. Among the more important Romanic languages are Catalan, French, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, and Spanish. We will write a custom essay sample on Spanish and Italian Borrowings to the English Language or any similar topic only for you Order Now My report is particularly about Italian and Spanish borrowings to the English language. Spanish borrowings appeared in English in 16 century. Historic circumstances which influenced on these borrowings are associated with some geographic discoveries at that time. There was a colonization of the South and North America by the Spanish. So the close cooperation with Spain contributed to the developing of borrowings from Spanish into English language. In 16 century close political and economic ties of England with Spain and of Spain with France led to borrowings both directly from Spanish and through the French language. In the beginning of the 16th century there were many Spaniards in England due to dynastic relations between England and Spain. So England inherited many Spanish words which related to Spanish manners. Associated essay: Reasons for Failure in English Language Many Spanish words have come to us from three primary sources: many of them entered American English in the days of Mexican and/or Spanish cowboys working in what is now the U. S. Southwest. Some words were borrowed with the Spanish culture-dances and musicals instruments. Words of Caribbean origin entered English by way of trade. The other major source is the names of foods whose names have no English equivalent, as the intermingling of cultures has expanded our diets as well as our vocabulary. There are the following semantic groups: ) trade terms: cargo- , embargo- , contraband-; b) names of dances and musical instruments: tango, rumba, habanera, guitar; c) names of vegetables and fruit: banana, cocoa , chocolate, cigar, cork – , , potato, tobacco, tomato. All of these were the objects of trade. They were borrowed from Spain to England. Anglo-Spanish War also greatly enlarged the vocabulary of English language which included such military terms: galleon – , , guer illa – . Besides during the Renaissance period the whole layer of everyday Spanish words came to the English language. For ex: bravada – , canoe – , , Negro – , ranch – , desperado – , , peccadillo – . In XIX century many borrowings from Spanish were brought through American literature. Such words as: cigarette, lasso, mustang – . There are following words among the recently borrowed ones: macho, amigo, gringo – . As we see, the majority of borrowings from Spanish retain their shape and are commonly used in English in the stylistic purposes to give the narration some Spanish shade. Of course it makes our speech more interesting and shows that we are culturally enriched. For example, we can say â€Å"adios† instead of â€Å"bye† to diversify our communication. English| Spanish| Alcove| Alcoba| Alfalfa| Al falfa| Artichoke| Alcarchofa| Apricot| Albaricoque| Calibre| Calibre| | Armada| Armado| Apricot| Albaricoque| Binnacle| Bitacula| The Italian language had the strongest influence on the English language in the Renaissance period. The art and literature had the great importance for the whole European culture. Italy was the leading country in the economic, politic, cultural fields, so familiarity with the rich Italian literature of this period, painting, sculpture and architecture, traveling to Italy, an interest in the country itself, was reflected in the loans from the Italian language. We should notice that, due to the wide spread of Italian debt in the European languages , some Italian words were borrowed to the English language, not directly but through other languages. Most of the Italian words was borrowed through French. And only in the XVI century, the borrowings were directly from the Italian language. The earliest borrowings related to trade and military affairs. There were borrowed the following words from the field of commerce and finance: ducat – coin, million – million, lombard – pawnshop, bank – bank. From the field of military: alarm – alarm, brigand – bandit, bark – bark, colonel – Colonel, squadron – squadron, sentinel – guard, pistol – gun. The greatest number of words borrowed from Italian related to the field of art, literature, music, theater and architecture. For example, canto – song, sonnet – a sonnet, stanza – stanza, slogan, model – model, miniature – miniature, madonna – Madonna, fresco – fresco, balcony – balcony, mezzanine – mezzanine, mezzanine and so on. Especially a lot of borrowing were from the field of music, such as: – The names of musical instruments: piano, violin, piccolo; – The name of singing voices: bass, baritone, alto, soprano; – The name of music: opera, sonata, aria. Among the 20-th century Italian borrowings we can mention : gazette, incognitto, autostrada, fiasco, fascist, dilettante, grotesque, graffitti etc. We should be notice that there are used even whole phraseological combinations in English, for example, sotto voce – whisper. How to cite Spanish and Italian Borrowings to the English Language, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

The Two Faces Of Ancient Greece (Athens Sparta) Essay Example For Students

The Two Faces Of Ancient Greece (Athens Sparta) Essay The two most dominating city-states in Greece of their time, Athens and Sparta, were great rivals with two very different ways of life. Spartas overbearing military and Athens impartial justice system and government are models for many modern day countries. Even though these two city-states differ greatly from one another, they share many characteristics of their country and their time period. Athens and Sparta were the two most powerful Greek territories of their time. Like most cities of the same country, they have the same Greek culture, worshipping the same Greek gods and speaking Greek. Like all Greeks, their people loved to talk and tell stories. Although they fought against each other, their citizens equally had great amounts of pride for their entire country as well as their city-states. The two rivals were both devoted mainly to agriculture and based their wealth, but not their success, on agriculture. Both also participated in the annual Olympics, an ancient Greek national athletic competition which is now a worldwide tradition. These to Greek city-states were the most feared city-states in all of Greece. We will write a custom essay on The Two Faces Of Ancient Greece (Athens Sparta) specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Though Athens and Sparta were similar, they were also very different. Athens was the first democracy, and it was also the first to govern with trial by jury. Athens main accomplishment was that it had a very strong Navy. It was the command of the sea and the head of the Naval Alliance, or the Delian League. Athens was the most feared city-state to fight at sea. Its other achievements were that is had excellent forms of art, architecture, drama and literature, philosophy, science, and medicine. It was very wealthy and had beautiful, extravagant temples. The boys of Athens went to school between the ages of five and eighteen, where they learned reading, writing, mathematics, music, poetry, sports and gymnastics. The girls stayed at home and learned spinning, weaving and domestic arts. Athens had well educated men, a good sense of art, and an all-powerful navy. Sparta developed the most powerful military oligarchy of their time. They had a very strong army and were the most feared city-state to fight on land. Sparta was a member of the Peloponnesian League and was the most powerful people in it. Its excellent military conquered many territories, which they controlled with slaves. Spartas sole achievement, other than military supremacy, was that its people possessed a simple life style, with no care for the arts of Athens. When Spartan boys turned seven years old they began training for the military, and they ceased their training at the age of twenty.There was much more gender equality in Sparta than in Athens, and girls went to school where they learned reading, writing, athletics, gymnastics, and survival skills, and they could even join the military. Sparta was militarily supreme over Athens, and it also supported better equality and simplicity of life. Sparta and Athens contrasted greatly in military, art, education, government, and in many other areas. The few similarities they had were mainly based on their countrys rituals and traditions. These rituals and traditions are what the modern world remembers of the Greek culture. Words/ Pages : 541 / 24

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Definition of Semi-Auxiliaries and Semi-Modals

Definition of Semi-Auxiliaries and Semi-Modals In English grammar, a semi-auxiliary is a multi-word construction based on an auxiliary verb and having some of the same grammatical characteristics. Also known as a semi-modal or a lexical auxiliary. Semi-auxiliaries include be about to, be able to, be going to, be likely to, be supposed to, had better, have to, ought to, used to, and would rather. Some are followed by an infinitive; others by a zero infinitive. Geoffrey Leech et al. note that the semi-modals are probably the most cited cases of grammaticalization in the ongoing history of English. Among these, in turn, the protoypical, most indubitable cases of semi-modal status are BE going and HAVE to . . .. [T]he lexically independent verbs have and go have, over the centuries, gradually acquired an auxiliary-like function in construction with the infinitive to (Change in Contemporary English: A Grammatical Study, 2012). Also Known As:  semi-modal, quasi-modal, periphrastic modal, phrasal auxiliary, modal-like, modal idiom, lexical auxiliary Examples and Observations What you have become is the price you paid to get what you used to want.(Mignon McLaughlin, The Complete Neurotics Notebook. Castle Books, 1981)Women have got to make the world safe for men since men have made it so darned unsafe for women.(Lady Nancy Astor)We had better dispense with the personification of evil, because it leads, all too easily, to the most dangerous kind of war: religious war.(Konrad Lorenz, On Aggression, 1963)Girl, you look so good, someone ought to put you on a plate and sop you up with a biscuit.(Arsenio Hall as Reverend Brown in Coming to America, 1988)Reckon somebody oughta help the poor guy.(Nigel in Finding Nemo, 2003)A great teacher is supposed to show them there are other points of view besides their own.(Matthew Morrison as Will Schuester, The Substitute. Glee, 2010)Im shaking the dust of this crummy little town off my feet and Im going to see the world. Italy, Greece, the Parthenon, the Coliseum. Then Im going to go to college and see what they know, an d then Im going to build things. Im gonna build air fields. Im gonna build skyscrapers a hundred stories high. Im gonna build bridges a mile long.(George Bailey in Its a Wonderful Life [1946], adapted from the short story The Greatest Gift [1943] by Philip Van Doren Stern) Strings of Semi-Auxiliaries Only the first word in a semi-auxiliary is a true auxiliary, since only that word functions as an operator, for example in forming questions: Is Sandra going to apply for the job?Had I better eat now?Is Jennifer supposed to phone us today? The semi-auxiliaries may come together to make a long string of verbs: We seem to be going to have to keep on paying the full fee.They are likely to be about to start working on our project. (Sidney Greenbaum and Gerald Nelson, An Introduction to English Grammar, 3rd ed. Pearson, 2009) The Habitual Past With Used to The   past form of habitual aspect is often expressed by the semi-auxiliary used to: Your mother used to sleep like a log.People used to whitewash their ceilings.My father used to bath us six kids in front of the fire. These utterances describe situations that occurred habitually in the past.(Thomas Edward Payne, Understanding English Grammar: A Linguistic Introduction. Cambridge University Press, 2010) The Future With Going to The salient semantic and pragmatic features of going to which are generally underlined by grammarians are: - its relatively informal style with respect to will (Huddleston and Pullum, 2002: 211). The widespread use of gonna (as opposed to going to in conversation is often a marker of informality; and it certainly is in written texts when spelt that way. . . .;- its dual meaning of future fulfillment of present intention and future result of present cause (Quirk et al. 1985), which have often been summed up as its intentional meaning and its predictive meaning;- its tendency to be used to indicate the proximity of a future event unless there is a time adverbial or context indicating otherwise (Declerck 1991: 114). The fact that the structure is that of the present progressive form of the verb to go would seem to underline strongly its connection with the present (Williams 2002: 102). (Yiva Berglund and Christopher Williams, The Semantic Properties of Going to: Distribution Patterns in Four Subcorpora of the British National Corpus. Corpus Linguistics 25 Years On, ed. by Roberta Facchinetti. Rodopi, 2007) Markings for Tense and Person [S]ome of the semi-modals, like have to and be going to, can be marked for tense and person: - past tense:He had to call the police. (CONV)- third-person agreement:Maybe she has to grow up a bit more. (CONV) These semi-modals can sometimes co-occur with a central modal verb or another semi-modal.(Douglas Biber, Susan Conrad, and Geoffrey Leech, Longman Student Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Pearson, 2002)

Monday, March 2, 2020

How to Get a Federal Tax ID Number

How to Get a Federal Tax ID Number Anyone who operates a business may be required to by the  Internal Revenue Service  (IRS) to get an Employee Identification Number, also known as a Tax ID Number. Just as a  Social Security  number is used by the  IRS  to identify individual taxpayers, the unique EIN is used to identify businesses. If the form you are filling out asks for your  federal  Employer Identification Number (EIN)  or Federal Tax ID Number, and you dont have one, its time to ask yourself: Do you really need an EIN, and if you do, how do you get one? The IRS requires businesses to provide their EIN on all tax documents and forms. Not all businesses need an EIN, but if yours does, the IRS offers several methods to get one. Does Your Business Need an Federal Tax ID Number? Any business offering products or services that are taxed in any way must get a federal tax ID number. If your state taxes personal services, or if you are required to collect sales taxes on your sales, you need an EIN. All the government forms you will be required to file for your business will require either your EIN or Social Security number. With a few exceptions, any business that has employees or pays any kind of federal, state, or local taxes will need an Employer Identification Number. Apply Online for an EIN The quickest way to apply for an EIN is online through the IRS websites secure  EIN Assistant  page. You will be given your EIN immediately after completing the short application form. After you complete the online application the IRS will create your new EIN, which you can start using immediately. Youll get an IRS document download that confirms that your application was successful and provides your EIN. Save a copy on your computer and to print one for your records in case you forget the EIN. File for an EIN by Fax or Mail The IRS also takes applications for an EIN via fax or mail. For these methods, youll need to fill out the IRS Form SS-4  and contact the appropriate office, depending on where you live. Anyone whose principal business is located in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia can file for an EIN using: Internal Revenue ServiceATTN: EIN OperationCincinnati, OH, 45999Fax: (855) 641-6935 When applying by fax, include a return fax number so the IRS can respond with your EIN within four days. By mail, the timeframe for the IRS to process the application is four weeks. Get a Federal Tax ID Number by Phone Only international applicants are allowed to apply by  phone,  and must answer questions regarding the SS-4. These applications can be completed by calling 267-941-1099. Essential Information for All EIN Applications The EIN application process requires some basic information, including: The type of EIN you are applying for, such as a  sole proprietorship,  corporation,  LLC, partnership or estateReason for applying for the EIN, such as starting a new business, banking purposes or a range of other reasonsYour nameYour Social Security number A Few Federal Tax ID Number Tips If you lose or forget your EIN, you can always call the toll-free IRS Business Specialty Tax Line at 800-829-4933. An IRS representative will ask you for some identifying information, such as your Social Security number, to ensure you are the person authorized to receive the EIN. Once you have completed the application and the IRS has assigned an EIN, the number can never be canceled. However, if you ever decide you no longer need the EIN, the IRS can close your business account for you. If you need it again, the EIN remains available to you and will never be reassigned to anyone else by the IRS.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Earth Hour Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Earth Hour - Essay Example This is a major event that requires a lot of planning. This is a project. It is a sequence of unique but connected activities, the aim of which s to accomplish a goal within a specific time period, within the budget and in accordance with specification (Wysocki, 2009, p. 2). It is a temporary undertaking (Schwalbe, 2009, p. 39). Like any project it is a cycle planning, which includes initiation, planning, execution and closure. Project Review The project involves a day long session consisting of two presentations, entertainment, tea and lunch. The event requires the use of volunteers which will be recruited by sending letters to organisations that are normally supportive of and by posting flyers at libraries, transportation centers and other public places. It also involves researching themes, venues, and entertainment that embrace environmental protection. Motivation for Project The world needs us and so we need to stop destroying it by playing our part in the preservation of the env ironment. The alarming rates of extinction of animals, deteriorating forests, and increased pollutants in the air are all the outcome of pollution. This menace arose at the cost of our luxuries. Excessive burning of fossil fuels has resulted in the increased emissions of green house gases and has also resulted in the augmentation of different diseases. Serious steps need to be taken now or otherwise it may be too late. Reducing our luxuries is one of the most important things. The burden placed on our natural resources has also resulted in an imbalance which has in turn resulted in drastic changes in the environment. The concept of Earth Hour came out of an initiative which started off in Sydney in 2004 and then celebrated for the first time in 2007 (UNEP, 2009). It was being run by the name of â€Å"The Big Flick†. Then this concept started spreading and this year 147 countries participated in saving energy on 31 March for one hour. Since it is quite a good effort the number of countries that have participated have been increasing over time and so is the duration of Earth Hour. Furthermore, this campaign has gone beyond just connecting people and bringing them together in one place. There is now a good motive behind it as people tend to want to have good reasons for doing and supporting something. They expect that it will result in good outcomes. This is usually the only way that it can lead to a positive response. Events need to be properly conceptualized so that people might be aware of the reasons as well as the circumstances they will face if they do not support it. We are now in the process of arranging an event the purpose in very simple words is preserving our planet. Our purpose here is to motivate people towards saving the environment and contributing to its preservation. Earth Hour has resulted in the saving of energy by shutting off lights for a short while and we want to broaden the perspective. The event is being held in Brisbane capital o f Queensland, the third populous county within Australia. The basic motive of our event will be making people aware of the possible hazards, the alarming increase in the population, and our usage of fossil fuels. We will try our best through the workshops and activities to create the realization in people that they should play their part in controlling the use of energy. The people themselves will put a stop to the extravagant use of the fossil fuels which has undoubtedly increased